Monday, April 25, 2011

Bivariate Choropleth Maps

Bivariate Choropleth Maps




Using a set of two variables are what make up Bivariate Choropleth Maps. Rows and columns would each indicate a specific variable, in this example dark purple shows countries with a higher rate of cancer with women having no insurance, on the contrary gray is a much lower rate.


Unclassed Choropleth Maps

Unclassed Choropleth Map
Fertility Rate Eurpoe


In an Unclassed choropleth proportional degrees of color darkness are used instead of numerical values. For example the higher the objects attribute value the darker the color will be on the map. The map shown shows the fertility rate for women in Europe which shows the maximum at 2.27 which seems like it may be a lot higher in the United states. 


Nominal Area Choropleth Map

Nominal Area Choropleth Map
Access to Drinking Water




Nominal Area Choropleth Map usually will show quantitative differences for specific variables. These maps use nominal data to display the projected information. To avoid errors this mapping technique uses properties that are constant. 

Standardized Choropleth Maps

Standardized Choropleth Maps
Adult Obesity



As another form of choropleth mapping this technique uses ranges and or colors to depict the information. It is a type of thematic mapping that focuses usually on a single theme like this one focusing on obesity where the data is summarized in a specific area.


Univariate Choropleth Maps

Univariate Choropleth Maps



Univariate choropleth maps display a single variable. This map contains the population per square mile by each state. It is based on a page provided by U.S. Census Bureau.

Accumulative Line Graph or Lorenz Curve

Accumulative Line Graph or Lorenz Curve
Distribution of Wealth 




Used in economics the Lorenz curve again is a graphical representation.  These graphs show the cumulative distribution function and probability distribution of wealth. It is used to describe the inequality in wealth or size. The Lorenz curve is formed by plotting the cumulative distribution of the amount of the variable against its frequency.

Bilateral Graph

Bilateral Graph




A bilateral graph looks much like a bar graph. This type of graph depicts increases on one sides and decreases on another. This data is displayed in positive and negative values. Here you can observe the decreases in world wide automotive sales for the third quarter of 2008.


Index Value Plot

Index Value Plot



Index Value Plots indicate absolute numbers or values. Plotted on a line graph as this one above is these graphs are another type of visualization map.


DOQQ

DOQQ



DOQQ maps are made using characteristics of an aerial image.  This areal image uses geometric features of a map. Distortion is omitted so these images are abled to be used as flat maps. This image take from a photograph in South Carolina and turned into a computer image,  you can observe the obvious displacement of the terrain.

Infrared Aerial Photo

Infrared Aerial Photo



An infrared aerial map is done using photography and can a powerful tool. Not only beneficial for the environment but can be used to monitor damage to infrastructure, used my law enforcement or even track toxic chemical. The example here is that of a football stadium, you can see how dark the field looks because it is made of turf compared to its surrounding environment.



Cartographic animations

Cartographic animations



When it comes to cartography animation is very importation in the representation of the information and data.  By definition as a graphic art that occurs in time animation is a visual statement that evolves through change in the display. We see this daily on the weather channel which is where my example is from. As time and technology evolves this has become much easier to present.



Statistical Maps

Statistical Maps




This map shown is a Statistical map and can be used to depict representations of distances apart from physical distance. Shown is that from the national data book in 2006 showing the average travel time to work.  Again colors are used and those states that are darker have higher times to get to work.


Cartograms

Cartograms



This type of map is known as a cartogram which uses some thematic mapping variable for instance travel time and is substituted for land area or distance. Being a distorted map this is done to convey the information for the alternative variable. This example is Singers by country of orgin.



Proportional Circle Maps

Proportional Circle Maps



Proportional Circle maps use different sized circles to show differences between two place as we see in the above example depicting the Czech Republic.  These maps areas are shaded with colors that are referenced in the key to the lower left. This images shows the population density information using a choropleth map.


Sunday, April 24, 2011

Dot Distribution Maps

Dot Distribution Maps




This Dot map represents where Feeder Watch participants counted birds from 2000 – 2001. Dot maps are proportional symbol maps where each dot denote the same quantity.


Population Profile

Population Profile



A population map is used to describe the population in a particular location. This map shows the population growth in mobile Alabama.  According to the key, the darker blue shade is used for percentage of males while the lighter is designated for females.  Based from this information the average age is between 40 and 44 for men and women.



Climograph

Climograph
West Mexico


These Climographs are tools used to show average temperature and precipitation of a specific place over the course of the year. This particular Climograph shows the precipitation of dry and wet seasons in West Mexico.




Parallel Coordinate Graph

Parallel Coordinate Graph



Parallel coordinate graphs are used to show numerous sets of data as the one pictured above. Typically each line is a different variable and each has a connection all the way through the presented graph.



Black & White Aerial Photo

Black & White Aerial Photo



Black and White aerial photo maps are useful when one wants to see an aerial view that is equivalent to viewing it with ones own eyes.


LIDAR

LIDAR
Light Detection and Ranging 


Using optimal remote sensing technology LIDARs use a laser to extract highly detailed imagery of a surface. This technology can measure the distance or other properties of a target by illuminating it with light. This technology is used in Geomatics, archaeology, geography and geology. The above image is an image from downtown Kansas.


Doppler Radar

Doppler Radar
Hurricane Katrina 



Doppler radar is a type of mapping used by meteorologists used in predicting rainfall and storm occurrences like the one above showing hurricane Katrina in 2005. The way it works is by using sound waves and electromagnetic radio waves to analyze the weather. These systems were originally developed for the military but have since revolutionized weather prediction.


Hypsometric Maps

Hypsometric Maps



Hypsometric maps represent the elevation of terrain using various colors.  These maps show relief by using three dimensional information. Above this map uses colors and it appears it is not completely flat. As the elevation increases the colors become more white.  This is similar to the way contour lines work.


PLSS Maps

Public Land Survey System Maps
Minnesota PLSS



The public land survey system is a way of subdividing the land in the United States. PLSS maps are used to distinguish public land owned by the government. Above is a map from a portion of Minnesota which includes numbered blocks. These blocks include various date for instance county code, lot counts and acres.


Flow Maps

Flow Maps
Texas Freight Flow Map



Flow maps are used to show the movement of objects from location to location, for example in Texas the total combined truck flows, flight paths, the amount of goods being traded etc.  There is an advantage of flow maps that being they reduce visual clutter by merging edges. Again colors are used and the more the network flow increases the lines become thicker.



Windrose

Windrose
Measuring Wind Speed



Wind rose is a graphic tool that is used by meteorologists as a way to analyze wind speed and wind direction.  In the image above this example shows the percentage of time that wind blew from each direction.




Choropleth Maps

Choropleth Maps 



As one of the most common and easily recognized Choropleth maps are a type of thematic map.  Choropleth maps as for example the image above are like graduated symbol maps using shades of color to depict value of data. The type of data used is rate, percentage, and proportions.


Isoline Maps

Isoline Maps
Annual Precipitation






Isolines are maps with continuous line that are based on the assumption that the represented data has a continuous distribution, as above annual precipitation. Points on Isolines connect at an equal value, for example the image above if there is an equal amount of precipitation the lines will touch but never cross.


Propaganda Maps

Propaganda Maps
Everythings Bigger in Texas



Propaganda is nothing new and has been around for thousands of years and forever will be. A propaganda map or image are used by nations or governments to persuade people into believing. The image above show that Texas is the best thing in the United States. If you read the names of the other states like Florida it say swamp land. This would persuade an individual to come to Texas and steer away from the other miserable states.

Similarity Matrix

Similarity Matrix



A similarity matrix is a matrix whose elements measure pairwise similarities of objects. They are strongly related to their counterparts, distance matrices and substitution matrices. The greater the similarity between the two data objects, there is a greater value of measure.

Correlation Matrix

Correlation Matrix




The correlation is a matrix giving the correlations between all pairs of data sets. Above is an image depicting a protein correlation matrix. The color red shows an extremely high correlation where blue is lower. In statistics this matrix is concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data.

Triangular Plot

Triangular Plot
Percentage of Votes Per. Party



A triangular plot is a graph that displays three variables one on each side. In the example here our three variables are the Liberal Democrat Vote (%), Conservative Vote (%), and the Labour Vote (%). Typically these graphs are used in geological studies of rocks and soil. As you move around the triangle in ascending order percentage of votes increases for each party.


Histogram

Histogram
QI Macros Histogram



In graphical form histograms depict the frequencies of statistical values and show the spread of data. Marcos histogram as shown above the vertical axis value is displayed to show the frequency of the observations on the horizontal axis. In the histogram rectangular bars corresponding with their categories show the frequency in relation to their height.


Stem and Leaf Plot

Stem and Leaf Plot
Mortality Rates Western Africa



Data is used in a variety of ways including tables, charts, and graphs. Stem-and-leaf-plots are a type of graph just like that of a histogram but show much more information. These plots analyze the distribution of quantitative data. By definition we can argue this example of Infant Mortality Rates just by looking at the way it is set up. Generally, they feature two columns one containing the stems while the other the leaves. They are designed to quickly visualize and analyze the information collected.


Box Plot

Box Plot
Energy Output



Used in descriptive statistics, boxplots take numerical datasets and summarize them into quartiles. This is a convenient way to graphically depicting numerical data of groups through their five summaries. Boxplots are also effective in visualizing the data because the reader can quickly determine where the bulk of data rests. This image is clearly a box plot as it is comparing the energy output of various machines.


Star Plots

Star Plots
MER IDD and Automated Designs




A star plot is a method of displaying multiple variables of data and characteristics of several different statistical observations. In this image each start represents a single observation, for that given observation the length of each ray will be in proportional to the size of the variable. This star plot represents MER IDD and Automated Designs. Star plots are effective when comparing many observations simultaneously. 


DLG

Digital Line Graph
Scale Land Use Land Cover




Known as digital line graphs, DLG maps show roads, boundaries, and other information commonly found on topographical maps. These maps are created from the U.S Geological Survey maps which the features are used in GIS applications. DLG data are classified as large, intermediate, and small scale. Using GIS this DLG map is of Illinois.




DRG

Digital Raster Graphics
Texas Digital Raster Graphics




As a scanned image of a I.S Geological Survey digital raster graphics are topographical maps scanned at a very low resolution (250 dots per inch) which includes all map collar information. This maps image is georefrenced to fit the Universal Transverse Mercator Projection.